created 17th March 2006 - last edited 22 May 2009

Life on the Farm: Agricultural Improvements
How these affected your ancestors - 1750 - 1880

A Study of Family Movements within the United Kingdom


After outlining some of the main farming reforms throught the UK, personal examples of local changes (in all four countries) that affected the author's forebears will be given; these examples will demonstrate information access methods, and the inter-relationships of sources. A knowledge of these local circumstances will both assist in finding new research directions and explain otherwise strange migrations.

1 - Introduction

I have had an interest in Social History for quite some time. Two personal pre-occupations have increased that personal interst in recent years - since 2000. Firstly, delving into my family history, in rural areas from 1840-1880, has made me more curious as to the reasons why my forebears wanted to move; close relatives (siblings, cousins) elected to stay put, and their descendants remain close to where their ancestors lived; there must be differences in the human psyche that gives some people "itchy feet" - while others are content to stay where they are. Secondly, I have been reading enigineering books (Shire monographs in particular) - on such people as Brunel, the railway builders - and on Thomas Telford the bridge and canal builder. On one summer holiday, I arranged a tour of central and southern scotland to view as many old Telford's bridges as circumsdances would permit; he has a strong interest in symmetry for example, and managed, in most designs, to make his bridges look beautiful, despite the demands of rock foundations and the natural state of the rivers whose bridges he crossed. Only in one instance was this symmetry destroyed. I have also taken an interest in agricultrual improvements -from a modern, practical, standpoint. In my UK travels, I looked carefully at older farm buildings, for example. You can see examples of 'Horse turnstiles" within buildings, used to operate threshing machines; the structures were especially erected to handle these turnstiles. The buildings were usually ovatgonal. The shape and style of there "improvement farms", necessary to accmommodate the agricultural improvements, had a smilar pattern or style throught the United Kingdom. Many of these farms remain, with minimal modification. So there are exmaples of 'living history; it is all around you in the UK - if you know what to look for!

1A - Purpose

The purpose of my investigations, and therefore this talk, are many-fold, related and specific. An awareness of rural circumstance very often plays a major factor in migration; if the local economy is strong and not changing, there is litle need to be anxious. Food is vailable and everyone is content. But if the farming practices of others have made your produce unwanted, there is reason for concern. I have found that the development of rural housing - a typical; farmhand's accommodations - also varied little throughout the UK. The basic building material changed with the avilable material, of course - especially the roofing - but the change from a central hearth to a side hearth with a chimney, occurred everywhere, but at different times. The practice of keeping livestock within the same building, - noted by many of us in the "black houses" used in the Scottish Highlands and Islands, and common in the 19th century - was the usual practice throughout the UK; I recall seeing many such black houses still in use when I back-packed around Lewis and Harris in the Summer of 1968.

An awarenes of economic factors, specifically relating to the area and time of your interest, may be of befefit in your researching; when realting this to the specific trades of my forebears a simple question was answered. How did a young lady from rural Wiltshire finish up in Cardiff, Wales? She was one of my great-grandmothers; I have found a simple, logical reason.

In addition, details of daily life likley to be encoutered by your forebears may enrich your family history investigations. One example is rural house styles - size, construction, use - is very real to me. For reasons primarily retalated to the stress and circumstance of World War II, for my first six years, my family lived in a remote 1750s-vintage lead miners cottage; I can remember the daily routines. And since the building was nominally our families "holiday cottage" - for summer use only - ithad no improvements. The processes of daily life - food preparation, cooking, heating and sleeping - varied little from those of the lead miners in the 1750s. They had pit ponies in the barn, and hay which was cut, stored and and then fed to the animals; but we just used our feet all the time - from collecting water from the well with a bucket, to cleaning pots and pans outside, to collecting the milk from the nearby farm in a 2-pint closed-lid milk pail and making a twice weekly-walk to the village for bread and groceries. We had no running water and our two luxuries were a white gas pressure-operated lantern - for reading in the evening - and the "wireless " or radio - to get the war news. the radio required a weekly visit to the local car repair garage in the village, to exchange the accumulator (or battery): one was in use, while the other was on a tricke charge.

I know where my parents first met: my father was a church representative who went to another Presbyterian church, a few miles away for a meeting; he was attratcted to the minister's eldest daughter! I know that my mother's parents met through church in Cardiff; the trainee minister was attracted to the younest daughter of one of the choir tenors. I am not too sure about my father's parents. My grandfather was determined to spend much of his energy in establishing a new church in the manchester suburbs - with a Scottish flavour, of course; but his father was a Scot immigrant from Dumfries who has set up an insurance business; he married an English nurse from Derbyshire, who had taken a job in Manchester; but she was Anglican. So one of my obejectives is to try and establish the circumstance where my 8 gt-grandparents first met each other - quite a challenge! The one I have just mentioned is perhaps the most peculiar of the 4 meetings; the others were more tsraight-forward and "naturally circumstantial"; but I'd like to delve further into the social circumstance around their lives.

2 - A Breakdown of the whole Presentation

This is the overall plan for the presentation. I will compare my two presentations - the second after lunch to-morrow, Sunday. After a bit of background I will select six topics for general comment. Interspersed will be a number of specific Examples, mainly related to my own family. I will conclude with a summary and list a few references. The web pages I have put up have similar material to that which I am presenting (there are a few extras), and there is a much larger reference list. So perhaps there is no need to take notes - unless you really want to.

3 - Relating the two presentations -- Farm out-migrations to Town in-migrations

There were many reasons and situations that caused distresses to rural people. Today I will mention the changes and stress in Farming life. An I have a personal definition of the Industrial Revolution; I exclude the Technical changes in farms; so my Industrial Revolution is Town and city based. However, there was an increased need for the trades of rural people in the towns. The towns Industrial processes tended to need the local available resources, so the towns grew only in certain specific areas. Today I will list social change, determination, developments and stresses in rural areas.

3a - Reasons for migration

There are no doubt many reasons for someone to move from their childhood village or town. But in reality, getting married - is not one of them; before the availability of tunpike roads and railways, only the rich would find a spouse remote from their home; a small number of people whose trade involved long-distance travel would have the opportunity of meeting people away from their home district; more about this later. From 1750 on wards, in increased awareness of religious "opportunities" was present; mhowever local religious affiliations and practices would have loittle effect in mobility; these religious chnages were more evident in Wales and Scotland, ove rthe period 1700 - 1870. However, in some instances these cahnges affected record keeping - espcially of births and marriages.The suspicion of religious interests being controlled by others was so strong that he Welsh had two Anglican Churches in London, but reporting separately to their own Bishops.

4 - Topic List - Six selected

So here are the Topics that I have selected. Improving the land is a general review. The progress that the Parliament in Westminster made to adequate, reasonable representation is considered next. The Land Enclosure process follows, a commentary on stress caused by the Westminster Warlords. Then we move into the details of New Buildings in the country; one of my forebears were very involved in that. I have a particular interest in the development of new animal types; it was discussed on CBC radio a while ago. Farm Mechanization has been a continual process, creating vast changes to the countryside. I finish with a summary and some conclusions.

5 Chapter 1 - Improving the Land, Droving and Winter Activities

This presentation will keep referring to the Enclosures. This process, together with changes in livestock, land usage with new crops and the use of new Farm Implements made radical changes to British faming over a relatively short time. The Run Rigs went out of use, and disenfranchised small-holders used Allotment Gardens to raise their own crops. The stresses and changes for farm workers were significant. Droving provided a way to feed the towns. Winter activities added significantly to farm workers income.

6 - Drovers - General Information

Some of my detailed stories will be about English, Scots, Welsh and Irish drovers activities. But this is just to start us on the path. Many drover's roads can be walked; some marked on maps. You see "Drovers Arms" pubs everywhere, especially to the NW of London. I have my own questions about drovers. Sheep droving continued into the 20th century - here's a Double Decker bus with a flock of sheep in Dingwall High Street, in the late 1950s.

7 - Droving - from many places with many animal types

Drovers amongst the few long-distance travellers, the Chapmen & the rich - and a few butchers; the Drovers met the townsfolk at Fairs. And it wasn't just cattle. Geese when driven had their feet tarred to prevent injury. You can see cow shoes at the Westport museum, hanging from the rafters. In two parts of course. Over the Winter drovers were busy doing tasks to provide additional income.

7 A- Drovers - more details - a butcher/drover story

A review of droving practices is an interesting topic in itself; A R B Haldane has a good book on Scottish Droving. Many animals were driven long distances, alive, to market. Geese were driven from Norfolk, and they had their feet tarred to resist the stones. If you go to the Museum in Westport, Ontario, you will see some brand-new cattlwe shoes. In 2003 I spent the christams holiday tracing ou the central Waled drove routes on my one-inch maps, using recently-acquired information. A GENUKI correspondent, Gareth Hicks, was especially helpful, and rsponded to my specific emails with detailed information. But an interest in droving took a strange turn in my "why did they ove" enquiries. My grandfather, born next to the City dairy in Bow Road London, married a lass during his eccesuaitical stufdies in cardiff. Elsie Leonora Edwards (my aunts have produced photos of their mother) was not born a Welsh Stevens, as my aunts had assumed. Her parents were John Poole and spouse Eunice Leonora - from Cricklade, Wiltshire. Marrying a John Edwards (a carriage builder) was her second marriage. So my query was "how on earth did an English lass from rural Wiltshire end up marrying a Mr Stevens - and end up living in Cardiff? There must be a reason. Slowly, going through census information, and reading the drovers books and articles, it finally dawned on me. John Poole was a butcher, and I found out that butchers, as well as drovers, travelled, to find their purchases. John Poole finished up with a butcher's shop in Abergavenny, Monmouthshire. But I also found out that, before there were any significant bridges across the River Severn, that cattle drovers from South Wales crossed the river more southerly than I thought, and often travelled in a southern loop, through Wiltshire, to the Home Counties. There was quite a Welsh community in Swindon, for example. So I think I have found the likely reason: there were Welsh butchers and drovers travelling through Wiltshire on a seasonal basis. I will probably find out that the "Mr Stevens" was in the drover or butcher's trade.PS - he was a draftsman neighbour (on Commerial Road) of his fiancée,Eunice Leonora, when her fathere was a bitcher in Newport, Monmouthsire - per the marriage certificate.

Some in the cattle drovers trade were petty criminals, as they used fraudulent practices - usually not honouring loans; the cash obtained on the sale of cattle was not available to the seller, when the drover returened to his home village. To try and remedy this, ever since the reign of Queen Anne, all drovers had to be married and over age 30; later, a formal licensing system was introduced.

8 - Winter activities on the Farms

Farm maintenance and indoor work kept farm labourers busy, especially so as some animals were kept indoors, in same building as people. On the hill farms, weaving and knitting were a significant part of annual income, but factories made a great impact on the life of country people.

9 - Chapter 2 - Acts of Parliament and representation

In the early 1800s. there was on on-going push-pull in Westminster for Parliamentary Reform. There was a strong lobby for the ìstatus quoî from the powerful landowners. There was unbalanced representation, a situation that PM Robert Peel disliked. There was a major row when a Roman Catholic was elected to Westminster, in Ireland. King George III meddled in parliamentary affairs. The Police system was set up, carefully using truncheons and not firearms. And through all this the common manhad to adapt to the changing situation. I have some personal examples.

10 - Two family stories of travel - why and How Central Wales to London, Wiltshire to South Wales

Here are two personal examples of people reacting to changed circumstances. I show the process, rather than just the result. First - William & Catherine Williams. William came from a remote hill farm in Blaen Pennal - Ffynon Wen (White Springs Farm) Cardiganshire. William was probably a drover's helper, & knew the drove route to London & also knew about the new milk trade in London - there were opportunities there.

11 - The newly weds- what to do?

Catherine Jones, newly married to William Williams must have produced a plan - to escape from the rigours of hill farming. Catherine's brother had picked the sea - he was on his way to be a sea captain.

12 - The journey - Blaen Penal to the East End of London - with or without cows?

I have worked out a probable route. This is the journey through the Welsh mountains that I had established; I have pencilled it in on my maps. Did they ride Welsh ponies, or walked? With their own cattle? I'd like to know.

13 - The Bow Dairy - Catherine & William Williams - & Catherine's father & brother

For the moment this is the end of the William & Catherine story, for the moment. I received some photos from an Aunt in 2003. A surprise was the older photo, suitably captioned - Daniel Jenkin was the Captain of what? I will follow this up later in my presentation.

14 - Elizabeth Maria Edwards nee Poole - Cardiff & Cricklade - A story

My second example crosses the English/Welsh border. My Gt-Grandmother was born in Wiltshire. Her second marriage, to my Gt grandfather, was in Cardiff. The process of discovery this time is easy, going through census records. Her first marriage was in Newport. But I am more interested in the why; why did her father move? geography & social history helps. But there is an Iinteresting connectionwhich suggests Newport. Here is the drove route of my other gt-grandparents. And here is another. But to my surprise there is one to the South, which uses a Ferry (shown with a star) to cross the River Severn. It also passes through Cricklade, the books tell me. I am sure John Poole was very familiar with the route, being a butcher, before he made the change. And now we move on .

15 - Chapter 3 - Workhouses the Corn Laws & enclosures

More examples of social stress in the town and countryside. The child factory laws laws were long overdue. I will discuss Workhouses to-morrow. Prime Minister John Russell was of the old school, supporting the landowners. Sir Robert Peel, however, wished to be rid of the iniquitous Corn Laws, which taxed grain imports, and made the poor desperate - but the Landowners rich. The nickname BOBBY for policeman comes from Robert Peel. There was even a cartoon about it. Sir Robert Peels bread shop! Now, back on the farm, the enclosures were continuing.

15 A - Legislative Changes - new rules and procdures - came into place.

In the early 1800s, the poor conditions and overcrowding on migrant ships were such that Emigration vessels were places under new requirements; this led to an increase in fares - and no doubt a prior surge. The Corn Laws affected rural society s a whole. Later the Poor Laws had a great affect on mobility - a parish had an obligation to maintain its indigent; it had been the practice for some poor people to wander over short distances, as they were constantly being asked to "move on"; the poor laws made it quite clear that parish had an obligation to look after in some way) those born in their parish.

This in turn led to the creation of Workhouses; if you come across records you may see the expression "Union Workhouse"; this was nothing to do with trade unions - just an agreement between adjacent parishes to have a larger, more efficient, workhouse, for two or more parishes. The conditions in the places were so harsh that many would conspire to avoid being arrested, with the sure expectation of being placed in a workhouse; there mare many books on this subject.

16 - The Enclosures - Improving the Land

The Enclosures were just part of a total change in the farming system which started on the English south coast around 1650; it did away with Yeoman farmers, and caused considerable worker dissent - and migration. By Act of Parliament in 1750, the process was made more orderly; the Highland Clearances were just part of the Agricultural Improvement process, which finished in Southern Scotland. Many walls and fences were built, and the run-rig or strip farming system was eliminated. Stone was re-used locally and both Hadrian's wall and the Deil's Dyke in Galloway were used, as were many derelict castles in all 4 countries. Much land was drained, with field-tiles in some areas, with ditches in others. Although controlled crop rotation increased nitrogen content (some cycles included a fallow, or clover year) the need for feretilizers created a market for importing guano from South America. Carefully structured farmyards, with new buildings were part of the plan: many farms are still in use. Farm workers now had a contract and could not do as they pleased; skilled workers were brought in on occasion. Fewer workers, and people moving.

16 - A More details - the process of creating enclosed land

The Agricultural Improvement process in the UK consisted of a series of changes which greatly affedted the lives of the fram people. New rules and expectations were placed on workers. The improvemnts included:

In many cases the farmhands had new, strong, expectations placed upon them. No longer were they loaned out to other farmers, or released for other activities, such as road-building. They often lost the right to have a small holding, (a ":cottar" in Scots palance) no longer could thye have their own cow or pig. This lack of freedom and change of lifestyle was often the main reason for emigration abroad. Going to the town may create an acceptable economic envirnoment, but those farmhands who wished to continue to "be their own bosses" had to leave.

17 - A digression - Acquiring books on specific regions & trades

Visit specialist museums or interpretation centres. e.g the Glasgow Tenement museum; various mining museums. Theres on on Lead mining, Killhope, Durham. The Beamish Museum in Durham is strongly recommended. A few years ago at Killhope I picked up a bicentennial cassette tape of brass band and Hymns, recorded in the local chapel.

18 - Chapter 4 - Wars, new factories & Farm buildings

Just a few sample selections from the late 1700s and early 1800s. The Towns were producing goods, some of which were also produced in farms - woolen goods in particular. Lower farm prices encouraged people to move, and farmers became more distressed for a variety of reasons. 1795: Despite stresses caused by war, the Lord of the Manor still wanted his rent. The battle of Trafalgar & poor crops from 1809 caused distress to many: Volcanic eruptions on the other side of the world caused crop failures. These are just some examples. Now back to real farm stories.

19 - A new Way of Life - Hiring and Farm leases

Farm Labourer Hiring arrangements have often been problematical; in some locations, character references were needed. The Crofter's Revolt in Skye was just one example of tenants considering land lease arrangements very unreasonable; in this case there was a commission and changes. To get an idea of farm life I suggest the Grassic Gibbon novels, written like the King James bible - without any double quotation marks, or the border stories of BBC's Lavinia Derwent; I picked up one of her Audio tapes of farm life near Jedburgh in the Borders from Ottawa South library. She talks about the Hind - the young farm labourer - usually called the Orra Loon in Aberdeenshire.

19 - A Social stress in rural Central Wales - 1820 -1860

I have known for some time that my great grandfather William Williams set up a City Dairy on the Bow Road in the 1870s; I suppose that made him one of the many "Welsh-speaking cockneys". Looking up the 1881 cenusus for the area, many of the factory workers (Bryant and May match factory, for example) were from Norfolk. The farming there (lavender and vegetables) had become mechanized, and there were many opportunities in London - moving, just as the Okies moved to California in the 1930s). A good book for Victorian social history in London is "London 1888" - I borrowed a copy at the Alta Vista library some years ago.

In the last couple of years I have seached my mid-Wales family history line, but with a social/economic interest, rather than just following up BMDs. The London city Directories, available at the University of Leicester, are an excellent example of web information. William Williams and his new wife Catharine Jones took up serparate jobs in London for a couple of years before setting up the Bow Road dairy (was it new, or taken over from an Uncle? - I have yet to find out). An interest in the Central Wales cattle Droving trade is examined elsewhere, but by looking up some GENUKI pages I was able to make enquiries as to the social/econmic circumstance. From 1795, Napoleon managed to place an embago on Merchant ships in the Irish Sea, which depressed the sale price of wool and other farm exports, especially corn. The Turnpike Act, passed in Westminster about 1750, permitted landowners to seek specific Parliamentary permission to construct toll roads on all parts of England and Wales; this started on the English South coast around 1760. By 1820, many new turnpike roads were built all over Wales, making long-distance transport of goods by land economic. But for many reasons, the relationship between the Anglican Squires (who created the turnpike trusts) and the Methodist farmers was not the best; the tolls were quite high, the tollgates were placed in inappropriate places, and (in some instances) the trust mangers committed illegal acts. The farmers were so angered that they set up midnight raids, to assist in their objectives. After secret meetings, they borrowed their wives underwear and hats, blackened their faces, and raided the toll gates with "Rebecca Riots". They took the name from a Rebecca story in the Bible - in Genesis. In some instances the toll houses were razed.

My interest in this topic was such that during the winter 2004-2005 I purchased some 6 books on social history (2 on the Riots) using the ABE books purchasing system (Based in Victoria BC). I bring some in to the "Discovery Table" for monthly GENUKI Saturday meetings, and other members have loaned and read them. Also, you will find the GENUKI counties pages very helpful in obtaining historical social and economic regional history. There are book lists, and some have text excerpts of books - which give a good indication of the regional social circumstance. A good place to start.

20 - Farming Cottages

Cottages were built to a pretty standard basic design, but using local wall & roof materials. This empty shell was a shepherdís cottage in Northumberland; it is odd because the roof beams have not been removed; wood was so expensive that long timber beams were taken with you, like furniture, when you moved - the reason for seeing no derelict roofs in remote cottages, which can be seen all over the UK. Cottages in any district were of a standard size, so the beams were re-used easily. Most cottages were similar to the Scottish Highland black house - a large room, central heath, and Thatch Reek - many animals wintered in the same building, with a wall of stone or wattle to separate them from the living quarters. With the introduction of low-cost iron castings, the hearth moved to a wall, often internal. My wife Frances remembers an elderly Great-Aunt from the 1960s who insisted in remaining in her cottage - with an earth floor; she wore clogs most of the time.

21 - New Farmyards and farmhouses

Designs of farm buildings have changed; this old tithe-barn looks like a church. The Farming Revolution produced new farms which were, for the most part, to a standard design. In many districts where good field stone was not available, new industries were set up for bricks etc. Farm-house style varied but the farm's inter-relationship with its buildings in these new farmyards was consistent - there was always a row of buildings across the large farmyard - stock-sheds & barns. A third side was for open-ended machinery storage. I have seen many all over UK; they give me joy when I see them; they are "all the same but different" .

22 - William Maxwell - Civil Engineer - Ballinasloe. Ireland

The Silver commemorative inscription, was on a draftsman's box. The Web search took me to a local Irish historian. William Maxwell designed farms and was a contractors overseer for a whole new Galway estate. This report, in a construction industry newspaper, shows considerable detail. The major civil works are described with specific sizes. So I had to wait for a site visit. I have not had that opportunity yet, but a family christening in Dublin in September 2004 aroused my interest. I had never been to Ireland.

22a William Maxwell - More details

My family has an Irish Connection, that related to Farm Improvements; I don't think there were any births or marriages in Ireland; but there were some teenage deaths. One of my great-grandparents was a William Maxwell (md Elizabeth Bennoch, in Closeburn, Dumfries-shire); he was a Civil Engineer: family records state that he worked near Ballinasloe, near Galway Ireland for a while. His Civil Engineering associations are confirmed with a family relic: my brother has an engineer's drafting box, with pens in it, made in Dublin.

22- B - Allan Pollock in Ireland- Ballymena

Allan Pollock, in a report by P.K Egan, was a businessman who made an opportunity from the potato famine - a not too uncommon situation.. He was a Scotsman with money from a shipping venture to invest, made an extensive purchase of land, up to 30, 000 acres, in counties Galway and Roscommon about the famine time. This was mainly the bankrupt estate of the Eyres of Eyrecourt which was put to auction by the Encumbered Estates Court. Pollock's first objective was to clear the tenants off and let it out in large tenures. He arranged for much drainage work, setting up a brick factory at Kylemore to make soil pipes. He built houses and erected gates and farm buildings. There were nine farmyards on the property.

During his time in Ireland, Pollock lived in Lismany, near Ballinasloe. The laying of the first stone was recorded in "The Western Star" of March 29th 1856. Lismany House was burnt down during the 1920's.

23 - A christening visit to Dublin

It was a quick day visit. Many unknown faces. It turned out that the christened child's grandfather, our host, knew about John Algie. Nothing further happened until February 2006, when I got an email by surprise. Through Dublin social contacts, a Ballinasloe historian wanted to know what I knew about John Algie and Lismany House, so I told him. After further e-mails he offered to go out on a visit, especially for me. He took some photographs. This stone is in the back-garden, not in a graveyard. I hink it recognizes Elizabeth Kelly Maxwell, a teenage sister of my gt-grandmother Mary Ann Maxwell, all listed in the family bible that my brother has.

24 Chapter 5 - Farm Animals - Improved breeds to Feed the Towns

With improved land with lush grass, different animal breeds were appropriate. Some farming families made a habit, with pride, of developing new strains, which needed care and time over generations. The Belted Galloway is an example - hardy & can stay outside in harsh winters; improved milk quality & quantity came from Ayrshire cattle. For sheep, the Lincolnshire Longwool made a marked improvement in quality. The drovers tended to have black cattle; from Ireland notice how small the Kerry black cattle, are. Before the arrival of railways, coastal trade with vessels up to 100 feet long plied between over 100 ports, providing significant employment. Now the story about Capt. Jenkin Jones . .

25 - Catherine & William Williams - and others

I have mentioned the William and Catherine East End Dairy story; my great-grandparents. But Catherine's brother Daniel Jenkin Jones started my interest, after these photos arrived from an Aunt in 2003. Captain of what? I decided to investigate further.

26 Capt Daniel Jenkin Jones, Aberayron

Here is an example that many of us can can do. I was stuck with the usual Census, Free BMD and IGI information. So I sent off to a FH Soc with a MI enquiry. He was a Merchant Sea Captain all right, drowned at sea. Tragic -- only 31 and already a Captain!! Then using the GENUKI pages to lead me, I tracked down a database of many Welsh Mariners in the 1800s - it must have taken many hours by many people to produce it! This is what I found. I was all set to wait a while, but e-mail correspondence, starting on another subject showed me that the only English Newspaper of South Wales has been indexed for all significant events, for the whole of the 19th century. What a treasure! You can see that Daniel Jenkin's vessel was run down, possibly in thick fog. PS With further email and web enquiries, Sept-Oct 2006, I have found out that the Cornwall - a 390 ton sailing barque, built on the Thames and based in Swansea - was travelling from the islet Sombrero in the Carribbean Dutch Antilles Islands, with a cargo of guano, for Gloucester, when she was run down in heavy fog off Lundy Island by the MV Himalaya, outward bound with a cargo of steel rails; some from the Cornwall, which had travelled frequently to Chile via Cape Horn, were saved.

27 - Chap 6 More reforms, the Vote & Farm Implements

The late Victorian times was an era of great Social progress. You might not think that closing pubs on Sundays was progress, but Kirkintilloch, Glasgow remained dry until the 1960s; I was in Altanta GA, in 1985 when the vote to make local areas ìwetî was finally passed; strong Calvinitistic attitudes still persist as Scots extend their influence. Benjamin Disraeli was virtually bullied into being Prime Minister - he was so capable; he steered through two important Acts. William Gladstone was his own man, a capable reformer, and had his own streong ipinions - not even Queen Victoria. The 1882 Married Women's Property Act was very significant. Under the act married women had the same rights over their property as unmarried women, therefore allowing married woman to retain property ownership. Previously this property became her husbandís, automatically. Gladstone got farm workers the vote, but tried twice, unsuccessfully, to give home rule to Ireland. Back on the farm technical improvements continued apace. Lets look at some of them.

27A - The stress continues - after WW1

Returning soldiers, to the Outer hebrides, found that there "was no life for them". the crifts were small, and they had seen the life away from the remote crofts. many decidie toemigrate to Ontario, Canada, and the Ontraion governmernt arranged for the Metagama, to call in (1921, 22) at Stornoway to pick up emigrants. There is a book about it. Metagama, - a Journey from Lewis to the New World

28 - Machines and Tools to help

The Glas-Chrom or foot plough, was used for heavy, rocky soil; it was used all over the Highlands. Over the centuries, plough improvements were on-going. The first significant machine in the Agricultural Revolution was Jethro Tull's seeder. On-going technical developments continued in Victorian times, and Threshing Machines changed the economics of grain farming. An on-going process of needing less labour; people had to move.

29 Sharing Information - In many ways

I'd like to share with you my philosophy of trying to share information, with some examples and results.. My mini-tree web pages (simple text files) have names in full - useful if 2 first names are used, The searcher puts the 3 names in quotation marks. A Poole son from 1st marriage went to Australia - The Fife GENUKI pages are now yielding to specific Google searches; I get nice e-mails of thanks!

29 - A Some suggestions

I have showed you my own investigative processes. My methods have produced results.

31 A - good reference book Trevelyan - Illustrated English Social History- Vol 4

A good book to get an idea of the Social changes. You will find a copy on the Scots Discovery Table most months. Few look at it or glance through it. After this presentation, perhaps it will be looked at more. It describes the causes and consequences of the Industrial Revolution.


Comments welcome - Hugh Reekie - visit his Home Page